Vitaillers (cooks in search of a name)
Nov. 25, 2001
The first cooking meeting of the newly formed
Coeur du Val cooking group resulted in a flavorful meal, comprised
of Blancmange, Buttered Worts,
Stewed Chicken, chinese style. Many thanks to
Brandy Friel for typing up most of the recipes!
and redacting are both necessary when working with medieval recipes.
A translation may change a recipe from literal Greek (or French) to
English, but that might not help much. Ingredients, measurements and
techniques have changed names over the centuries, and since so many
people were illiterate and cooking skills taken somewhat for granted,
recipes were written down merely as a memory aid, leaving much to
the imagination. ("Take the two del of rice, the third part of almonds...and
add white grease and breast of hens ground small...") A redaction
takes a translation and tries to make a recipe out of it.
- Modernly known as a white sweet pudding,
blancmange in the European Middle Ages was a white savory dish.
HL Thomas Bowyer provided us with a number of different recipes
-- 14th Century Venetian (Bramagere/blancmange), 1350 German (blamensier/blancmange),
1390 English and 1395 French (blanc mangier or brouet blanc/white
brewet); and two modern redactions.
One version was for sick people, another
was lavish and garnished with pomegranate and comfit. Ingredients
we did not use included verjuice, wine, rosewater, violets,
goat milk, veal and bacon, and chicken fat. We interpreted "grains
of paradise" as white pepper.
This dish would take well to simple molds
for subtleties; one recipe calls for it to be "pressed."
Here is our redaction:
|Blancmange du Coeur du
1300-1400 CE Europe
| 4 c almonds
2 c uncooked rice
2 chicken breasts
1/2 c sugar
1/2 tsp salt
1 tsp ground ginger
One to 1/2 tsp ground cloves
One to 1/2 tsp ground coriander
1/2 tsp white pepper
1/3 c. almond slivers for garnish
|Make almond milk:
Grind almonds with an equal amount of water in a blender
until the consistency of thick cream. (A whiter dish should
result if you first blanch the almonds and pop them from
their skins. It is a time-consuming task.)
Cook the rice and chicken breasts:
We simmered the chicken breasts in water until done and
then used the resulting stock to cook the rice. Cool the
meat and shred it.
Toast the almond slivers (or brown
them in chicken fat or light oil).
Mix together all ingredients except
almond slivers; taste and adjust seasonings as desired.
Garnish with almond slivers and serve.
May be served reheated or cooled
and formed into a mold. May be top dressed with additional
toasted almonds, rosewater, borage flowers, sugar dusting,
dried saffron strands or the like.
|Thomas also made
a modern egg- and cornstarch- thickened pudding so we could
taste the dish that blancmange has evolved into.
- Graffin Liesel brought a recipe for
Gingerbread, which tasted very much like baklava when done, and
contained absolutely no ginger.
? CE Europe
| 1.5 lbs (2 cups) honey
1/4 tsp each saffron & ground black pepper
2 1/2 oz. bread crumbs (5 cups)* (go with the cups measurement
if the weight is off)
18 small Bay leaves
| Bring the honey to the
boil in a pan with the saffron and pepper. Remove from heat
and stir in the breadcrumbs so as to make a very thick paste.
Simmer on an asbestos mat* over low heat for 15-20 minutes
until the paste has dried out. Place in a 9" by 5" loaf
tin. Smooth over the top and sprinkle with cinnammon. Make
6 trefoils on the top by sticking groups of three bay leaves
together at the stalk end with a clove pierced through each
group into the surface of the gingerbread. Chill for several
days in the refrigerator. Serve in small slices.
|*Lacking an asbestos mat,
we used a solid skillet and stirred carefully. A tile or
a cast iron skillet might be helpful.
- Graffin Liesel also brought this recipe,
which was much like a predecessor of fruitcake.
On Feb. 7, 1205 a tithe was paid by the
tenants of the Monastery of Montecellesi in Siena. The tithe
called for a number of panpepati e meilati or pepper and honey
breads to be paid to the Monastery. This recipe is similar to
period gingerbreads and results in a very rich and textured
product suitable for serving in small pieces.
modern version (Source?)
| Pre-heat oven to 300
| 2 cups blanched, toasted
almonds, corsely chopped or slivered
1 cup raisins, currants or golden raisins
1 cup chopped dates
1 teaspoon grated lemon peel
1 teaspoon cinnamon
1/4 teaspoon ground cloves
1/4 teaspoon grated nutmeg
1/8 teaspoon ground black pepper
1/2 cup flour
3/4 cup sugar
3/4 cup honey
3 tablespoons butter
|Mix the dry ingredients in a
bowl, set aside.
Grease a 9 -11" springform or tart
pan with a removable bottom, line it with baker's parchment
and grease the parchment.
Combine the sugar, honey and butter
in a small saucepan and bring to a boil over medium heat
until it reaches about 245 degrees F, when the syrup is
between the soft and firm ball stages. Thoroughly mix
the syrup into the dry ingredients to make a stiff batter.
Scrape the batter into the the prepared pan and spread
and smooth it.
Bake in a pre-heated oven at 300
degrees F for about 40 minutes. Remove from the oven and
let cool about 15 minutes, and then separate the pan's
walls from the base. Allow the panforte to cool on the
base. When cool remove from base and peel off parchment,
cut and serve.
- Raven/Mary/Erin made some delicious
farmers cheese and then bewildered several of us by putting it
in a Coolwhip container! We could still use that recipe...
- Buttered worts
- Sophia made this for us. Wortes were
vegetables greens and members of the onion family, such as cabbage,
spinach, beet greens, leeks, etc. as well as the plants used for
seasonings: borage, parsley, sage and so forth.
Buttered Greens: Take all manner of good herbs you can get and
do them as is foresaid; put them on the fire with water; add
a great quantity of clarified butter. When they have been boiled
enough, salt them; let no oatmeal come in. Dice bread small
and place in dishes, and pour on the wortes and serve. (SOURCE?)
|Sofia's Buttered Worts
| 8 cups of any combination
spinach, cabbage, beet greens, onions, leeks, parsley, etc.
1 stick of butter (1/4 lb.)
salt to taste
1 cup dice bread or unseasoned croutons.
| Cover greens with water;
add butter and bring to a boil; add salt. Reduce heat and
cook until vegetables are tender; drain. Place bread in
serving bowl (can be individual bowls) and cover with cooked
|In trial we served used
mustard greens and served it all over slices of dried or
- Stewed chicken
- A simple recipe that is likely to
grace the Coeur du Villain feast table, graciously provided by
Her Excellency Mistress Kerij-e.
Put a stewing chicken in a deep ovenproof
dish. Add 2 c soy sauce, 2 c water, 5 star anise, and the dried
grated rind of 3-4 tangerines. Bake (we cooked this for two
hours at 350 and an additional half-hour at 300, as we were
sharing the oven, and it came out falling-off-the-bone tender).
Contact host Thomas Bowyer at whittier.thomATepa.gov
for more information.
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